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First Overland, The Story of The Oxford & Cambridge Far Eastern Expedition
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1955 in transport
Southeast Asia -- Description and travel. All members were from either Oxford University or Cambridge University , and all had just finished their degrees when they set out on the expedition, with the exception of Nigel Newbery, who had one year left, and was the only Oxford student; the expedition members and their roles on the expedition were as follows:. The next joint expedition was the Oxford and Cambridge Expedition to South America , on which at least two team members from the Singapore journey took part: Adrian Cowell and Nigel Newbery.
Between , Eric Edis led a sixteen-person team on an overland expedition from London to Singapore and then on to Australia and back to the UK - the first man to make the round trip overland and with no sponsorship, he was also the only man to cross the 'closed' Burmese border twice unaided.
The book is the main source of information about the expedition and its fullest account, as the footage and subsequent programmes made with it only cover a small portion of what the six students did and experienced on their long journey. The route is now largely impassable, because of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, and because the Indian border with Burma was closed in The expedition set out with only a limited quantity of film from the BBC, but with the promise of more from David Attenborough if the initial material sent back was good.
In the end there was enough material for 3 short films for the BBC series 'Traveller's Tales' which were shot in colour, but only transmitted in black and white. In the late s there was no home recording technology like VHS , so once broadcast, the films faded from view and have only been seen occasionally since. Recently they have been re-mastered and edited, with a commentary by the cameraman Antony Barrington-Brown and Tim Slessor, and interviews with Nigel Newbery, Pat Murphy, Adrian Cowell and Sir David Attenborough; the DVD also has an 'extra' about the making of the original films and the rescuing of the footage.
He is best known for writing and presenting, in conjunction with the BBC Natural History Unit , the nine natural history documentary series forming the Life collection that together constitute a comprehensive survey of animal and plant life on Earth, he is a former senior manager at the BBC, having served as controller of BBC Two and director of programming for BBC Television in the s and s.
Attenborough is considered a national treasure in Britain, although he himself does not like the term.
In he was named among the Greatest Britons following a UK-wide poll for the BBC, he is the younger brother of the director and actor Richard Attenborough , older brother of the motor executive John Attenborough. Attenborough was born in Isleworth , but grew up in College House on the campus of the University College, where his father, was principal. He is the middle of three long-lived sons. Attenborough spent his childhood collecting fossils and natural specimens, he received encouragement in this pursuit aged seven, when a young Jacquetta Hawkes admired his "museum".
He spent much time in the grounds of the university, aged 11, he heard that the zoology department needed a large supply of newts, which he offered through his father to supply for 3d each; the source, which he did not reveal at the time, was a pond less than five metres from the department. A few years one of his adoptive sisters gave him a piece of amber containing prehistoric creatures. In , Attenborough and his brother Richard attended a lecture by Grey Owl at De Montfort Hall and were influenced by his advocacy of conservation. According to Richard, David was "bowled over by the man's determination to save the beaver, by his profound knowledge of the flora and fauna of the Canadian wilderness and by his warnings of ecological disaster should the delicate balance between them be destroyed.
The idea that mankind was endangering nature by recklessly despoiling and plundering its riches was unheard of at the time, but it is one that has remained part of Dave's own credo to this day. Attenborough was educated at Wyggeston Grammar School for Boys in Leicester and won a scholarship to Clare College, Cambridge in , where he studied geology and zoology and obtained a degree in natural sciences.
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In , he was called up for national service in the Royal Navy and spent two years stationed in North Wales and the Firth of Forth. Robert is a senior lecturer in bioanthropology for the School of Archaeology and Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra.unsitaba.gq
First overland: The Oxford and Cambridge Far Eastern Expedition | Classic Driver Magazine
Susan is a former primary school headmistress. After leaving the Navy, Attenborough took a position editing children's science textbooks for a publishing company. He soon became disillusioned with the work and in applied for a job as a radio talk producer with the BBC. Although he was rejected for this job, his CV attracted the interest of Mary Adams , head of the Talks department of the BBC's fledgling television service.
Attenborough, like most Britons at that time, did not own a television, he had seen only one programme in his life. However, he accepted Adams' offer of a three-month training course, in he joined the BBC full-time. Discouraged from appearing on camera because Adams thought his teeth were too big, he became a producer for the Talks department, which handled all non-fiction broadcasts, his early projects included the quiz show Animal , Mineral? Attenborough's association with natural history programmes began when he produced and presented the three-part series Animal Patterns; the studio-bound programme featured animals from London Zoo , with the naturalist Julian Huxley discussing their use of camouflage and courtship displays.
Through this programme, Attenborough met Jack Lester , the curator of the zoo's reptile house, they decided to make a series about an animal-collecting expedition.
The result was Zoo Quest , first broadcast in , where Attenborough became the presenter at short notice due to Lester being taken ill. Attenborough was asked to join it, but declined, not wishing to move from London where he and his young family were settled. Instead, he formed his own department, the Travel and Exploration Unit, which allowed him to continue to front Zoo Quest as well as produce other documentaries, notably the Travellers' Tales and Adventure series.
In the early s, Attenborough resigned from the permanent staff of the BBC to study for a postgraduate degree in social anthropology at the London School of Economics , interweaving his study with further filming. Greece Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe , with a population of 11 million as of Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki.
Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula , it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13, km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2, metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece , the Peloponnese , Epirus , the Aegean Islands , Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy , Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis , which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India.
Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire , in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the midth century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in following a war of independence. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living.
Oxford and Cambridge Far Eastern Expedition
A founding member of the United Nations , Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since , it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe , the North Atlantic Treaty Organization , the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , the World Trade Organization , the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie.
Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to , BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia.
All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete , the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A , the Mycenaeans in Linear B , an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse.
This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a " Great King " based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games.
The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea , So. Yugoslavia Yugoslavia was a country in Southeastern and Central Europe for most of the 20th century. It came into existence after World War I in under the name of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes and Serbs with the Kingdom of Serbia , constituted the first union of the South Slavic people as a sovereign state, following centuries in which the region had been part of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary.
Peter I of Serbia was its first sovereign; the kingdom gained international recognition on 13 July at the Conference of Ambassadors in Paris. The official name of the state was changed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers on 6 April In , a Democratic Federal Yugoslavia was proclaimed by the Partisan resistance. In King Peter II living in exile, recognised it as the legitimate government; the monarchy was subsequently abolished in November Yugoslavia was renamed the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia in , when a communist government was established.
It acquired the territories of Istria and Zadar from Italy. Partisan leader Josip Broz Tito ruled the country as president until his death in Serbia contained two Socialist Autonomous Provinces and Kosovo , which after were equal to the other members of the federation.
After an economic and political crisis in the s and the rise of nationalism, Yugoslavia broke up along its republics' borders, at first into five countries, leading to the Yugoslav Wars. From to , the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia tried political and military leaders from the former Yugoslavia for war crimes and other crimes. After the breakup, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro formed a reduced federation, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which aspired to the status of sole legal successor to the SFRY, but those claims were opposed by the other former republics.
Serbia and Montenegro accepted the opinion of the Badinter Arbitration Committee about shared succession. In the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was renamed to State Union of Montenegro ; the union peacefully broke up when Serbia and Montenegro became independent states in , while Kosovo proclaimed its independence from Serbia in The concept of Yugoslavia, as a single state for all South Slavic peoples, emerged in the late 17th century and gained prominence through the Illyrian Movement of the 19th century; the name was created by the combination of the Slavic words "jug" and "slaveni".
It was referred to at the time as the " Versailles state"; the government renamed the country leading to the first official use of Yugoslavia in On 6 January King Alexander I suspended the constitution, banned national political parties, assumed executive power and renamed the country Yugoslavia , he hoped to mitigate nationalist passions. He imposed a new constitution and relinquished his dictatorship in However, Alexander's policies encountered opposition from other European powers stemming from developments in Italy and Germany , where Fascists and Nazis rose to power, the Soviet Union , where Joseph Stalin became absolute ruler.
None of these three regimes favored the policy pursued by Alexander I. In fact and Germany wanted to revise the international treaties signed after World War I , the Soviets were determined to regain their positions in Europe and pursue a more active international policy.